Biotechnology may be defined as ‘any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof to make or modify products or processes for specific use’. No matter what tools or techniques like DNA marker, gene manipulation, gene transfer, invitro culture, embryo transfer etc are used, biotechnology like any other technology must give rise to certain products, processes or innovative services. Genetic engineering is the pivot of modern biotechnology. Recombinant drugs like Insulin, Interferon, Growth hormone and a host of others have already been produced through bacterium like E. coli by inserting gene from human and animal sources. And in the advanced countries a revolution has already taken place with biotechnological products.
The rapid advent of biotechnology since the world war two has been made possible through realization of the fact that this technology has a twin faceted central core which is concerned with the obtaining of the best possible biocatalyst( living organisms genetically modified or not or part of it for a particular process and with the construction of the best possible environment for the catalyst to discharge its function. The second facet of biotechnology embraces bioreactor design with appropriate environmental conditions in terms of media, pH, temperature control and overall process control for optimised productivity.
The multidisplinary approach has resulted in new and unique interdisciplinary area in which molecular biology, different branches of engineering, electronics etc have played pivotal role in making products, processes and services of the modern biotechnology within reach. of common man. From application point of view, like twin strands of a double helix, biotechnology and electronics are joining forces in a technological explosion that will dwarf what will be possible by either one of them. These aspects will be highlighted in the paper